bijoux-et-mineraux:

Plumbogummite on a Pyromorphite stalactite - Yangshuo Mine, China

(via shychemist)

neurosciencestuff:

Existence of new neuron repair pathway discovered
Most of your neurons can’t be replaced.
Other parts of your body – such as skin and bone – can be replaced by the body growing new cells, but when you injure your neurons, you can’t just grow new ones; instead, the existing cells have to repair themselves.
In the case of axon injury, the neuron is able to repair or sometimes even fully regenerate its axon. But neurons have two sides – the axon (which sends signals to other cells) and the dendrite (which receives signals from other cells).
Melissa Rolls, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State and director of the Huck Institutes’ Center for Cellular Dynamics, has done extensive comparisons of axons and dendrites – culminating recently in a paper published in Cell Reports.
“We know that the axon side can repair itself,” says Rolls, “and we know a bunch of the molecular players. But we really didn’t know whether neurons have the same capacity to regenerate their dendrites, and so that’s what we set out to find in this study.”
“Our lab uses a Drosophila model system, where the dendrites are very accessible to manipulation,” she says, “so we decided that we would start by removing all the dendrites from the neurons to see if they could regenerate. We didn’t start with anything subtle, like taking off just a few dendrites. We said ‘Let’s just push the system to its maximum and see if this is even possible.’ And we were surprised because we found that not only is it possible, it’s actually much faster than axon regeneration: at least in the cells that we’re using, axon regeneration takes a day or two to initiate, while dendrite regeneration typically initiates within four to six hours and it works really well. All the cells where we removed the dendrites grew new dendrites – none of them died; so it’s clear that these cells have a way to both detect dendrite injury and initiate regrowth of the injured part.”
Read more

neurosciencestuff:

Existence of new neuron repair pathway discovered

Most of your neurons can’t be replaced.

Other parts of your body – such as skin and bone – can be replaced by the body growing new cells, but when you injure your neurons, you can’t just grow new ones; instead, the existing cells have to repair themselves.

In the case of axon injury, the neuron is able to repair or sometimes even fully regenerate its axon. But neurons have two sides – the axon (which sends signals to other cells) and the dendrite (which receives signals from other cells).

Melissa Rolls, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State and director of the Huck Institutes’ Center for Cellular Dynamics, has done extensive comparisons of axons and dendrites – culminating recently in a paper published in Cell Reports.

“We know that the axon side can repair itself,” says Rolls, “and we know a bunch of the molecular players. But we really didn’t know whether neurons have the same capacity to regenerate their dendrites, and so that’s what we set out to find in this study.”

“Our lab uses a Drosophila model system, where the dendrites are very accessible to manipulation,” she says, “so we decided that we would start by removing all the dendrites from the neurons to see if they could regenerate. We didn’t start with anything subtle, like taking off just a few dendrites. We said ‘Let’s just push the system to its maximum and see if this is even possible.’ And we were surprised because we found that not only is it possible, it’s actually much faster than axon regeneration: at least in the cells that we’re using, axon regeneration takes a day or two to initiate, while dendrite regeneration typically initiates within four to six hours and it works really well. All the cells where we removed the dendrites grew new dendrites – none of them died; so it’s clear that these cells have a way to both detect dendrite injury and initiate regrowth of the injured part.”

Read more

(via thenewenlightenmentage)

pennyfornasa:

Astronomers May Have Discovered The First Exomoon
NASA funded researches have discovered the first exomoon candidate. An exomoon is a moon that orbits a planet that resides outside of our Solar System. Using a technique called gravitational microlensing, they saw what could be either a planet and a moon, or a planet and a star. They can’t confirm their findings because gravitational lensing events happen only once due to chance encounters. However, this discovery will be encouraging to astronomers who are actively hunting for exomoons.
Read more about this discovery here: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-109
This artist conception depicts the two possibilities; the planet/moon pairing on the left and the star/planet couple on the right. Which do you think it is?

pennyfornasa:

Astronomers May Have Discovered The First Exomoon

NASA funded researches have discovered the first exomoon candidate. An exomoon is a moon that orbits a planet that resides outside of our Solar System. Using a technique called gravitational microlensing, they saw what could be either a planet and a moon, or a planet and a star. They can’t confirm their findings because gravitational lensing events happen only once due to chance encounters. However, this discovery will be encouraging to astronomers who are actively hunting for exomoons.

Read more about this discovery here: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-109

This artist conception depicts the two possibilities; the planet/moon pairing on the left and the star/planet couple on the right. Which do you think it is?

we-are-star-stuff:

Why are all planets spheres?
The myth that the Earth was flat persisted far longer than it should have. Philosophers and scientists suggested the Earth was round as far back as Pythagoras, or perhaps even further, and Eratosthenes even calculated its circumference with decent accuracy in the second century BC. It went on for centuries more, ultimately culminating in that most basic satisfying piece of evidence: the photos of the Earth as seen from space. Not even the most scientifically illiterate person could now doubt the facts. Earth is a sphere.
But why is the Earth, like all other planets, a sphere? Not to be evasive, but the simplest answer is: because they’re planets. When trying to come up with a mass threshold to differentiate planets from smaller bodies like asteroids, one of the primary rubrics is whether the body is massive enough to hold a spherical shape. So, there’s a giveaway: the answer is related to mass - and the most obvious force related to mass is, of course, gravity.
The reason planets are spherical is because the mass of the whole body creates a gravity well that is theoretically centered on the mass-center of the body itself. An irregularly shaped protoplanet, say with a lobe of heavy material sticking out in one direction, might have its gravitational center pulled away from the physical center of the shape. Over millions and billions of years, though, the strong pull down in all directions evens out those bumps.
The constituents of Earth might seem solid, but they are malleable under so much strain, and can flow like putty. In essence, gravity slowly deforms a planet to turn the gravitational center into the physical center. On a long enough timeline, the slow, even pull down the gravity well compresses a planet down to the most compact distribution around the center - in other words, a sphere.
Asteroids are often very oddly shaped with multiple lobes or jutting arms. This is because they are too small to create enough gravity to compress themselves down into a ball. Compared with the internal forces that hold matter together, gravity is very weak. A body must grow very large to exert enough gravity to overcome those forces. Many comets are much closer to spherical, however, because it takes so much less force to change the shape of ice than of rock.
[Continue Reading]

we-are-star-stuff:

Why are all planets spheres?

The myth that the Earth was flat persisted far longer than it should have. Philosophers and scientists suggested the Earth was round as far back as Pythagoras, or perhaps even further, and Eratosthenes even calculated its circumference with decent accuracy in the second century BC. It went on for centuries more, ultimately culminating in that most basic satisfying piece of evidence: the photos of the Earth as seen from space. Not even the most scientifically illiterate person could now doubt the facts. Earth is a sphere.

But why is the Earth, like all other planets, a sphere? Not to be evasive, but the simplest answer is: because they’re planets. When trying to come up with a mass threshold to differentiate planets from smaller bodies like asteroids, one of the primary rubrics is whether the body is massive enough to hold a spherical shape. So, there’s a giveaway: the answer is related to mass - and the most obvious force related to mass is, of course, gravity.

The reason planets are spherical is because the mass of the whole body creates a gravity well that is theoretically centered on the mass-center of the body itself. An irregularly shaped protoplanet, say with a lobe of heavy material sticking out in one direction, might have its gravitational center pulled away from the physical center of the shape. Over millions and billions of years, though, the strong pull down in all directions evens out those bumps.

The constituents of Earth might seem solid, but they are malleable under so much strain, and can flow like putty. In essence, gravity slowly deforms a planet to turn the gravitational center into the physical center. On a long enough timeline, the slow, even pull down the gravity well compresses a planet down to the most compact distribution around the center - in other words, a sphere.

Asteroids are often very oddly shaped with multiple lobes or jutting arms. This is because they are too small to create enough gravity to compress themselves down into a ball. Compared with the internal forces that hold matter together, gravity is very weak. A body must grow very large to exert enough gravity to overcome those forces. Many comets are much closer to spherical, however, because it takes so much less force to change the shape of ice than of rock.

[Continue Reading]

(via thenewenlightenmentage)

I think when I get done running errands and applying to places I’ll play some Borderlands 2, I kind of want to try and get a Norfleet. Course I can either go through the hell of getting Vermivorous to spawn, or I can play through the Scarlett DLC just to be able to fight Hyperius….

Either way I’m fighting a raid boss, so I get the joy of just picking my favorite :P

Or I can just go into Warframe and giggle at the fact that the Corpus have bunny ears on their helmets because it’s Easter.

thenewenlightenmentage:

Neurons Tune into Different Frequencies for Different Spatial Memory Tasks
Your brain transmits information about your current location and memories of past locations over the same neural pathways using different frequencies of a rhythmic electrical activity called gamma waves, report neuroscientists at The University of Texas at Austin.
*Please see the notes for important information regarding this research.*
The research, published in the journalNeuron on April 17, may provide insight into the cognitive and memory disruptions seen in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s, in which gamma waves are disturbed.
Continue Reading

thenewenlightenmentage:

Neurons Tune into Different Frequencies for Different Spatial Memory Tasks

Your brain transmits information about your current location and memories of past locations over the same neural pathways using different frequencies of a rhythmic electrical activity called gamma waves, report neuroscientists at The University of Texas at Austin.

*Please see the notes for important information regarding this research.*

The research, published in the journalNeuron on April 17, may provide insight into the cognitive and memory disruptions seen in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s, in which gamma waves are disturbed.

Continue Reading

biovisual:

Baby Squid Photography by Jeannot Kuenzel - Malta
All rights reserved by Jeannot Kuenzel
sharing enabled / downloading enabled
Posted on Flickr March 29 and 31, 2014

top image
EGGS of Loligo vulgaris: the European squid, a large squid belonging to the family Loliginidae.

bottom image

Two stages of the development of a [European squid] are visible in the picture. These eggs are about 3mm in diameter; when the little squid inside has used up all the nutrients (all the yolk that is attached to it), it plops its suckers to the inside of the diaphragm and releases enzymes that will aid opening the shell, pushing through the opening - and a tiny new ALIEN of the DEEP is born :]

Notice the CHROMATOPHORES already embedded in its skin and the tiny little SIPHON… BTW, the SQUID on the left is actually laying on its back…

(via quantumaniac)

rhamphotheca:

libutron:

Regal Horned Lizard - Phrynosoma solare | ©Jason Penney   (Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation, southwest Arizona, US)
Phyrnosoma solare (Phrynosomatidae) are among the larger species of Horned Lizard. Their Latin name is derived from the meaning “rays of the sun” by referring to four large occipital horns at the base of the head continuous with six temporal horns, form a large crown of ten sharp, pointed horns along the base of the head.
American group of Regal Horned lizards have evolved an exceptionally bizarre defense against predators: when under threat they can restrict blood flow from the head until mounting pressure ruptures small blood vessels in and around the eyes, resulting in a spurt of blood that may leap a meter (3 1/2 feet) or more [source].

o hey, look at that parietal eye!

rhamphotheca:

libutron:

Regal Horned Lizard - Phrynosoma solare | ©Jason Penney   (Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation, southwest Arizona, US)

Phyrnosoma solare (Phrynosomatidae) are among the larger species of Horned Lizard. Their Latin name is derived from the meaning “rays of the sun” by referring to four large occipital horns at the base of the head continuous with six temporal horns, form a large crown of ten sharp, pointed horns along the base of the head.

American group of Regal Horned lizards have evolved an exceptionally bizarre defense against predators: when under threat they can restrict blood flow from the head until mounting pressure ruptures small blood vessels in and around the eyes, resulting in a spurt of blood that may leap a meter (3 1/2 feet) or more [source].

o hey, look at that parietal eye!

zerostatereflex:

NASA’s Kepler Discovers First Earth-Size Planet In The ‘Habitable Zone’ of Another Star

"Using NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting a star in the "habitable zone" — the range of distance from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface of an orbiting planet. The discovery of Kepler-186f confirms that planets the size of Earth exist in the habitable zone of stars other than our sun."

Nice! Getting closer to finding our “Twin Earth..” 

(via infinity-imagined)

laboratoryequipment:

Team Visualizes New Crystallization ProcessSometimes engineers invent something before they fully comprehend why it works. To understand the “why,” they must often create new tools and techniques in a virtuous cycle that improves the original invention while also advancing basic scientific knowledge.Such was the case about two years ago, when Stanford School of Engineering scientists discovered how to make a more efficient type of thin, crystalline organic semiconductors. Their so-called “strained organic semiconductors” carried current faster than comparable systems, a big step toward producing flexible electronic devices that couldn’t be built using rigid silicon chips.Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/team-visualizes-new-crystallization-process

laboratoryequipment:

Team Visualizes New Crystallization Process

Sometimes engineers invent something before they fully comprehend why it works. To understand the “why,” they must often create new tools and techniques in a virtuous cycle that improves the original invention while also advancing basic scientific knowledge.

Such was the case about two years ago, when Stanford School of Engineering scientists discovered how to make a more efficient type of thin, crystalline organic semiconductors. Their so-called “strained organic semiconductors” carried current faster than comparable systems, a big step toward producing flexible electronic devices that couldn’t be built using rigid silicon chips.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/04/team-visualizes-new-crystallization-process